The LGBTI movement began when the first activists invented the concept of sexual orientation. Simply put, they needed language and tools to identify, organize, and understand themselves. They needed new words so that they could advocate for the freedom of LGBTI people to love and express themselves freely without interference from the government.
The concept of sexual orientation was invented by Karl Heinrich Ulrichs, a lawyer who in 1867 made history as the first person in the world to speak out openly and publicly to argue for the rights of LGBTI people. Ulrichs believed that there was a biological basis to sexuality and to gender nonconformity, that the people we now call LGBTI were "born that way," and that therefore discriminating against people for being same-sex attracted, gender-nonconforming, or intersex was unjust. Over a century and a half later, this argument remains central to LGBTI activism around the world. Ulrichs created a system of over 15 different terms in his attempt to define and categorize human sexuality.
Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was a pioneer of the modern gay rights movement. In 1867, Ulrichs became the first homosexual to speak out publicly in defence of homosexuality when he urged the Congress of German Jurists to repeal anti-homosexual laws. #LGBTHistoryMonth pic.twitter.com/lNCXAAWm0K— Human Dignity Trust (@HumanDignityT) February 1, 2018
His colleague, Karl-Maria Kertbeny, helped Ulrichs refine this concept into our modern framework of sexual orientation by simplifying the dizzying array of terms into categories that broadly describe behavior. Kertbeny was not interested in what caused sexual orientation and even thought that arguing same-sex attraction was inborn could backfire. Instead, he focused on decriminalization and liberation, basing his arguments on the classical liberal idea that the government had no business regulating consensual sexual acts between adults in private. For Kertbeny, this was personal: when he was a young man, his close friend committed suicide after a blackmailer threatened to out him as gay. That loss stayed with Kertbeny, and he argued passionately that criminalization of same-sex acts not only violated individual liberty, it also unjustly left people vulnerable to extortion.
In order to advocate along those lines, Kertbeny looked for language that would directly address the laws that left people so vulnerable. He focused on sexual behavior rather than identity because the government criminalized sexual acts, not people's sense of self (identity) or their inner desires (attraction). In a letter to Ulrichs dated May 6th, 1868, Kertbeny invented the terms homosexual and heterosexual.
the word that ignites the emancipation of people with same-sex desire— heretik (@heretikradikal) July 12, 2018
The Double Life of Kertbeny
*img 1868 #KarlMariaKertbeny firsts mention of the word "homosexual" in a private letter to #KarlHeinrichUlrichshttps://t.co/7P99HqRpvP
+ https://t.co/KJAjPiKKYp pic.twitter.com/CrelPE2q9q
By creating language and a concept of people who experience a deepseated drive towards same-sex intimacy, these pioneers made it possible for LGBTI people to find one another. Now able to create community and come out of the shadows, they were better able to advocate for themselves legally and socially. This kicked off decades of activism that, after eras of seemingly hopeless struggle and dire setbacks, finally resulted in the decriminialization of homosexuality, the legalization of same-sex marriage, and employment protections for LGBTI people in many countries across the globe.
In 1892, Richard von Krafft-Ebing further built upon Kertbeny’s framework by coining the term bisexual for the 7th edition of Psychopathia Sexualis. He was a psychiatrist and sex researcher who wrote Psychopathia Sexualis for medical and legal professionals to better understand human sexuality. In writing it, he discovered that there was no language for people who experienced both homosexual and heterosexual attractions and so took it upon himself to create the word bi- (as in both kinds of attraction) -sexual.
Although it may feel tempting to blame the idea of sexual orientation for the subsequent pathologization of homosexuality and bisexuality, the reality is that at the time most of the medical field viewed all non-procreative sexual acts as unhealthy. While this may seem hopelessly out-of-date today, it helps to remember that until the mid 1900s, most STIs were incurable and birth control methods were limited and ineffective. Religion also had greater influence on the field of medicine than it does now. The realities of the day made it possible for people like John Harvey Kellogg (co-inventor of Corn Flakes), guided by his Seventh Day Adventist beliefs, to be instrumental in establishing circumcision a routine medical procedure for male babies across the United States in order to prevent the "evil" of masturbation. He even argued that the surgery should be performed without anesthesia in order to clear the mind of ideas associating genitals with pleasure.
Despite this stifling atmosphere, the activists who came up with the concept of sexual orientation and the scientific terminology to describe it were aware of gender diversity and knew about differences of sexual development (intersex conditions). In an era when Origin of The Species was revolutionizing human thought, they were also keenly aware of the role evolution played in creating the two reproductive sexes through which our species continues its existence, as well as those sexes' role in fueling our drive to couple with each other. Gender identity was not included in the terminology of sexual orientation because gender is immeasurable, subjective, varies greatly across and within cultures, is fluid (i.e. subject to change) and, more importantly, is not the axis along which sex acts and relationships are criminalized.
Bisexuality is a term that covers physical and romantic attractions to people of the same sex and to people who are of a different sex. You may have come across claims that bi people are exclusively attracted to cis (i.e. non-trans) women and cis men or, stranger still, any two or more gender identities. At the very least, that is a misunderstanding of the meaning of the prefix bi- in bisexual. While the bi in bisexuality does indeed mean two or both, when counting anything, it is important to know what exactly is being counted. In this case, it refers to two types of attraction or behavior: both heterosexual and homosexual. It does not refer to gender identities, just as heterosexual and homosexual do not refer to attraction to or intimacy with specific gender identities.
If a bi person categorically states that they could never be attracted to any trans person — whether woman, man, non-binary, or another gender identity — that is transphobia, plain and simple. It is not a separate sexual orientation, let alone the textbook definition of bisexuality. Some bi people are transphobic, just as some heterosexual, homosexual, and asexual people are transphobic.
In humans, there are four distinct sexual orientations: heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual, and asexual.
- Homosexual describes individuals who are exclusively attracted to members of the same sex.
- Heterosexual describes individuals who are exclusively attracted to people who are not of the same sex.
- Bisexual describes anyone whose attractions aren’t exclusively limited to people of the same or other sex.
- Asexual describes anyone who does not experience sexual attraction.
The framework of sexual orientation invented by the pioneers of the LGBTI movement continues to serve as a useful tool for advocating for our legal rights and dignity. As of 2020, same-sex marriage is legally performed and recognized (nationwide or in some parts) in the following countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greenland, Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Malta, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Uruguay.